FEMA 403, APPENDIX C
Metallurgical Examination of WTC Steel Suggests Explosives
Although virtually all of the structural steel from the Twin Towers and Building 7 was removed and destroyed, preventing forensic analysis, FEMA’s volunteer investigators did manage to perform “limited metallurgical examination” of some of the steel before it was recycled. Their observations, including numerous micrographs, are recorded in Appendix C of the WTC Building Performance Study. Prior to the release of FEMA’s report, a fire protection engineer and two science professors published a brief report in JOM disclosing some of this evidence. 1
The results of the examination are striking. They reveal a phenomenon never before observed in building fires: eutectic reactions, which caused “intergranular melting capable of turning a solid steel girder into Swiss cheese.” The New York Times described this as “perhaps the deepest mystery uncovered in the investigation.” 2 WPI provides a graphic summary of the phenomenon.A one-inch column has been reduced to half-inch thickness. Its edges–which are curled like a paper scroll–have been thinned to almost razor sharpness. Gaping holes–some larger than a silver dollar–let light shine through a formerly solid steel flange. This Swiss cheese appearance shocked all of the fire-wise professors, who expected to see distortion and bending–but not holes.
FEMA’s investigators inferred that a “liquid eutectic mixture containing primarily iron, oxygen, and sulfur” formed during a “hot corrosion attack on the steel.” The eutectic mixture (having the elements in such proportion as to have the lowest possible melting point) penetrated the steel down grain boundaries, making it “susceptible to erosion.” Following are excerpts from Appendix C, Limited Metallurgical Examination.Evidence of a severe high temperature corrosion attack on the steel, including oxidation and sulfidation with subsequent intergranular melting, was readily visible in the near-surface microstructure. A liquid eutectic mixture containing primarily iron, oxygen, and sulfur formed during this hot corrosion attack on the steel.
The thinning of the steel occurred by high temperature corrosion due to a combination of oxidation and sulfidation.
The unusual thinning of the member is most likely due to an attack of the steel by grain boundary penetration of sulfur forming sulfides that contain both iron and copper.
liquid eutectic mixture containing primarily iron, oxygen, and sulfur formed during this hot corrosion attack on the steel.
The severe corrosion and subsequent erosion of Samples 1 and 2 are a very unusual event. No clear explanation for the source of the sulfur has been identified. The rate of corrosion is also unknown. It is possible that this is the result of long-term heating in the ground following the collapse of the buildings. It is also possible that the phenomenon started prior to collapse and accelerated the weakening of the steel structure. A detailed study into the mechanisms of this phenomenon is needed to determine what risk, if any, is presented to existing steel structures exposed to severe and long-burning fires.
Thermite Use as an Explanation
The “deep mystery” of the melted steel may be yielding its secrets to investigators not beholden to the federal government. Professor Steven Jones has pointed out that the severe corrosion, intergranular melting, and abundance of sulfur are consistent with the theory of thermite arson.
THE BEHAVIOUR OF MULTI-STORY STEEL FRAMED BULDINGS IN FIRE
ACE Elevator Company
9/11 Questions and Research
How could explosives be planted in the WTC?
Ace is the trump card to win a new 9/11 investigation
By Rick Shaddock, ANETA Writing Team
with thanks to Dr. Crockett Grabbe (PhD, Physics, CalTech)
Although we do not know exactly how explosives could have been planted in the World Trade Center prior to 9/11, without detection, we do know two things for sure. Other possible explanations were not considered in the 9/11 Commission or NIST Reports. Key people were not even mentioned in the final reports.
The possibility of controlled demolition was not seriously considered in the Nine Eleven Official Conspiracy Theory (NEOCT). There were workers with unfettered access to parts of the builds that were perfect for the planting of explosives, such as in the elevators shafts next to the vertical support columns, and above the ceiling panels next to the horizontal beams. There were also fireproofing renovation workers.
Dr. Niels Harrit has estimated that it would take “tons” of explosives to demolish the buildings. Demolition experts such as Tom Sullivan have said that it would be quite easy to plant them, if a group had access to the elevator shafts, next to the core columns.
Workers had access to unoccupied areas by day, and in occupied areas by night, and on week ends. Workers from the A.C.E. Elevator Company in the WTC elevator shafts from 1994 until 9/11/2001 were not even mentioned in the final reports. Neither was LVI Services, working on the asbestos removal project. Nor were the fireproofing workers. (See video)
The words “Ace elevator” or “A.C.E.” (herein ACE) are not found anywhere in the PDF files of the 9/11 Commission or NIST reports, although “elevator” appears multiple times. You can check this out for yourself. The names of the security company, “Securacom” (renamed “Stratesec” after 9/11), are not found either. If the security company cannot be trusted, than there are many ways the explosives could be brought in. The building owner is also key. The landlord, Larry Silverstein is only mentioned in the WTC 7 report, as a contributor. http://911Experiments.com/reports.
With the assistance of Frank Lowy, Paul Eisenberg, and Ronald Lauder, Larry the N.Y. Port Authority turned over the management to Silverstein Properties. He hired the firm Kroll for security.
Kevin Ryan has well researched who had access to the WTC towers in his article. http://911review.com/articles/ryan/demolition_access_p1.html
According to Dennis Cimino, interviewed on Dr. James Fetzer‘s show, there were other fake sounding names on the list of renovation contractors working on the World Trade Center.
This report will focus on ACE.
ACE got the WTC contract, the biggest elevator project in history, There was an article “Drive to the Top” in the trade magazine Elevator World about the ACE project.
Elevator modernization would be the perfect cover for the planting of explosives. Tom Sullivan, who worked for Controlled Demolition Inc., said that the elevator shafts, next to the load bearing columns, would be the perfect place.
NEOCT supporters may say “people would have seen A.C.E. Elevator planting explosives in the shafts”. But building occupants, except for A.C.E. workers and StrateSec security, could not look in the elevator shafts. As an experiment you can do, just try to get permission to look in the shafts. I could not even look in one that I partly own.
A.C.E. Elevator Company went bankrupt in 2006. How could ACE go bankrupt, if they were skilled enough to get the largest contract in history? Presumably they got paid, because Larry Silverstein was fully insured, received over $4 billion, and there are no records of ACE suing Larry. The owner was Ronald A. Baamonde, a millionaire who was well paid, and had a mansion after 2001 with a swimming pool. This supports the hypothesis that Ace Elevator was a “front company” created for the purpose of planting explosives, with just enough background to sound credible.
Some NEOCT supporters may say: “ACE is still in business. So there is nothing suspicious about them”. But that is not true. http://www.nysb.uscourts.gov/sites/default/files/opinions/115931_152_opinion.pdf